It is Joseph Stalin who codified the body of ideas that, under the name of Marxism-Leninism, constituted the official doctrine of the Soviet and eastern European communist parties. Stalin was a man of action in a slightly different sense than was Lenin.
The demoralized Russian Army suffered severe military setbacks, and many captured soldiers deserted the front lines. Dissatisfaction with the monarchy and its policy of continuing the war grew among the Russian people.
The Russian Provisional Government was installed immediately following the fall of the Tsar by the Provisional Committee of the State Duma in early March and received conditional support of the Mensheviks. The new Provisional Government maintained its commitment to the war, joining the Triple Entente which the Bolsheviks opposed.
The Provisional Government also postponed the land reforms demanded by the Bolsheviks.
Lenin, embodying the Bolshevik ideology, viewed alliance with the capitalist countries of Western Europe and the United States as involuntary servitude of the proletariat, who was forced to fight the imperialists' war.
As seen by Lenin, Russia was reverting to the rule of the Tsar, and it was the job of Marxist revolutionaries, who truly represented socialism and the proletariat, to oppose such counter-socialistic ideas and support socialist revolutions in other countries.
Within the military, mutiny and desertion were pervasive among conscripts, though being AWOL Absent Without Leave was not uncommon throughout all ranks. The intelligentsia was dissatisfied over the slow pace of social reforms; poverty was worsening, income disparities and inequality were becoming out of control while the Provisional Government grew increasingly autocratic and inefficient.
The government appeared to be on the verge of succumbing to a military junta. Deserting soldiers returned to the cities and gave their weapons to angry, and extremely hostile, socialist factory workers.
The deplorable and inhumane poverty and starvation of major Russian centers produced optimum conditions for revolutionaries. During the months between February and Octoberthe power of the Provisional Government was consistently questioned by nearly all political parties.
A system of 'dual power' emerged, in which the Provisional Government held nominal power, though increasingly opposed by the Petrograd Soviettheir chief adversary, controlled by the Mensheviks and Socialist Revolutionaries both democratic socialist parties politically to the right of the Bolsheviks.
The Soviet chose not to force further changes in government due to the belief that the February Revolution was Russia's "crowing" overthrow of the bourgeois. The Soviet also believed that the new Provisional Government would be tasked with implementing democratic reforms and pave the way for a proletarian revolution.
Though the creation of a government not based on the dictatorship of the proletariat in any form, was viewed as a "retrograde step" in Vladmir Lenin's April Theses. However, the Provisional Government still remained an overwhelmingly powerful governing body. Failed military offensives in summer and large scale protesting and riots in major Russian cities as advocated by Lenin in his Theses, known as the July Days led to the deployment of troops in late August to restore order.
The July Days were suppressed and blamed on the Bolsheviks, forcing Lenin into hiding. Still, rather than use force, many of the deployed soldiers and military personnel joined the rioters, disgracing the government and military at-large.
It was during this time that support for the Bolsheviks grew and another of its leading figures, Leon Trotskywas elected chair of the Petrograd Soviet, which had complete control over the defenses of the city, mainly, the city's military force.
On 24 October, in early days of the October Revolution, the Provisional Government moved against the Bolsheviks, arresting activists and destroying pro-Communist propaganda.
The Bolsheviks were able to portray this as an attack against the People's Soviet and garnered support for the Red Guard of Petrograd to take over the Provisional Government. The administrative offices and government buildings were taken with little opposition or bloodshed.
The generally accepted end of this transitional revolutionary period, which will lead to the creation of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics USSR lies with the assault and capture of the poorly defended Winter Palace the traditional home and symbol of power of the Tsar on the evening of 26 October The Mensheviks and the right-wing of the Socialist Revolutionaries, outraged by the abusive and coercive acts carried out by the Red Guard and Bolsheviks, fled Petrograd, leaving control in the hands of the Bolsheviks and remaining Left Socialist Revolutionaries.
On 25 Octoberthe Sovnarkom was established by the Russian Constitution of as the administrative arm of the All-Russian Congress of Soviets.
By 6 Januarythe VTsIKsupported by the Bolsheviks, ratified the dissolution of the Russian Constituent Assemblywhich intended to establish the non-Bolshevik Russian Democratic Federative Republic as the permanent form of government established at its Petrograd session held 5 and 6 January Russian Civil War poster, "Mount your horses, workers and peasants!
The Red Cavalry is the pledge of victory. Fighting the civil war would actually force the party to put these principles into practice. Arguing that the revolution needed not a mere parliamentary organization but a party of action which would function as a scientific body of direction, a vanguard of activists, and a central control organ, the Tenth Party Congress banned factions within the party, initially intending it only to be a temporary measure after the shock of the Kronstadt rebellion.
It was also argued that the party should be an elite body of professional revolutionaries dedicating their lives to the cause and carrying out their decisions with iron discipline, thus moving toward putting loyal party activists in charge of new and old political institutions, army units, factories, hospitals, universities, and food suppliers.
Against this backdrop, the nomenklatura system would evolve and become standard practice. In theory, this system was to be democratic since all leading party organs would be elected from below, but also centralized since lower bodies would be accountable to higher organizations.
In practice, "democratic centralism" was centralist, with decisions of higher organs binding on lower ones, and the composition of lower bodies largely determined by the members of higher ones.
Over time, party cadres would grow increasingly careerist and professional. Party membership required exams, special courses, special camps, schools, and nominations by three existing members.It is Joseph Stalin who codified the body of ideas that, under the name of Marxism-Leninism, constituted the official doctrine of the Soviet and eastern European communist parties.
Stalin was a man of action in a slightly different sense than was Lenin. Iosif Vissarionovič Stalin, born Iosif Vissarionovich Dzhugashvili, December 18, (O.S. December 6) – March 5, , usually transliterated Josef Stalin, consolidated power to become the absolute ruler of the Soviet Union between and his death in Stalin held the title General Secretary of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union .
Joseph Stalin's rule in the Soviet Union was characterized by the establishment of a totalitarian dictatorship What was the major goal of Joseph Stalin's five-year plans in the Soviet Union. It is Joseph Stalin who codified the body of ideas that, under the name of Marxism-Leninism, constituted the official doctrine of the Soviet and .
In , Lenin had died which made Stalin the leader of the Soviet Union. The first things that Stalin did when he became leader was go on a series of purges, started collectivization farming, and . Eventually crushing all opponents, the RCP spread Soviet style rule quickly and established itself through all of Russia.
Following Lenin's death in , Joseph Stalin, General Secretary of the RCP, became the de facto leader of the USSR.