The effect of human immunodeficiency virus mutations on the immune system

Nonspecific, innate immunity Most microorganisms encountered in daily life are repelled before they cause detectable signs and symptoms of disease.

The effect of human immunodeficiency virus mutations on the immune system

A phenotypic characteristic, acquired during growth and development, that is not genetically based and therefore cannot be passed on to the next generation for example, the large muscles of a weightlifter.

Any heritable characteristic of an organism that improves its ability to survive and reproduce in its environment. Also used to describe the process of genetic change within a population, as influenced by natural selection.

A graph of the average fitness of a population in relation to the frequencies of genotypes in it. Peaks on the landscape correspond to genotypic frequencies at which the average fitness is high, valleys to genotypic frequencies at which the average fitness is low.

Also called a fitness surface. A behavior has adaptive logic if it tends to increase the number of offspring that an individual contributes to the next and following generations.


If such a behavior is even partly genetically determined, it will tend to become widespread in the population. Then, even if circumstances change such that it no longer provides any survival or reproductive advantage, the behavior will still tend to be exhibited -- unless it becomes positively disadvantageous in the new environment.

The term can also be applied to larger groups of organisms, as in "the adaptive radiation of mammals. A mode of coping with competition or environmental conditions on an evolutionary time scale.

Respiratory and cardiovascular systems

Species adapt when succeeding generations emphasize beneficial characteristics. A person who believes that the existence of a god or creator and the nature of the universe is unknowable. An umbrella term for various simple organisms that contain chlorophyll and can therefore carry out photosynthesis and live in aquatic habitats and in moist situations on land.

The term has no direct taxonomic significance. Algae range from macroscopic seaweeds such as giant kelp, which frequently exceeds 30 m in length, to microscopic filamentous and single-celled forms such as Spirogyra and Chlorella.


One of the alternative forms of a gene. For example, if a gene determines the seed color of peas, one allele of that gene may produce green seeds and another allele produce yellow seeds. In a diploid cell there are usually two alleles of any one gene one from each parent.

Within a population there may be many different alleles of a gene; each has a unique nucleotide sequence.

The relation between the size of an organism and the size of any of its parts. For example, an allometric relation exists between brain size and body size, such that in this case animals with bigger bodies tend to have bigger brains. Allometric relations can be studied during the growth of a single organism, between different organisms within a species, or between organisms in different species.

Speciation that occurs when two or more populations of a species are geographically isolated from one another sufficiently that they do not interbreed.

The effect of human immunodeficiency virus mutations on the immune system

Living in separate places. The unit molecular building block of proteinswhich are chains of amino acids in a certain sequence. There are 20 main amino acids in the proteins of living things, and the properties of a protein are determined by its particular amino acid sequence.

The effect of human immunodeficiency virus mutations on the immune system

A series of amino acids, the building blocks of proteinsusually coded for by DNA. Extinct relatives of cephalopods squid, octopi, and chambered nautilusesthese mollusks had coiled shells and are found in the fossil record of the Cretaceous period.

The group of reptiles, birds, and mammals. These all develop through an embryo that is enclosed within a membrane called an amnion. The amnion surrounds the embryo with a watery substance, and is probably an adaptation for breeding on land.

The class of vertebrates that contains the frogs, toads, newts, and salamanders. The amphibians evolved in the Devonian period about million years ago as the first vertebrates to occupy the land.

They have moist scaleless skin which is used to supplement the lungs in gas exchange. The eggs are soft and vulnerable to drying, therefore reproduction commonly occurs in water. Amphibian larvae are aquatic, and have gills for respiration; they undergo metamorphosis to the adult form.

Most amphibians are found in damp environments and they occur on all continents except Antarctica.The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a lentivirus (a subgroup of retrovirus) that causes HIV infection and over time acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).

AIDS is a condition in humans in which progressive failure of the immune system allows life-threatening opportunistic infections and cancers to thrive. Without treatment, average survival time after infection with HIV .

Read The Effects of Hiv Mutations on the Immune System free essay and over 88, other research documents. The Effects of Hiv Mutations on the Immune System.

INTRODUCTION The topic of this paper is the human immunodeficiency virus, HIV, and whether or not mutations undergone by the. Immune system: Immune system, the complex group of defense responses found in humans and other advanced vertebrates that helps repel disease-causing entities.

Immunity from disease is conferred by two cooperative defense systems: innate immunity and acquired immunity.

The Immune System: The Body's Defense Department

Learn more about the mechanisms and evolution of the immune system. C-reactive protein (CRP) a protein that is produced in the liver in response to is a biomarker of inflammation that is strongly associated with the risk of cardiovascular events, such as myocardial infarction and stroke.

Calcification the process of deposition of calcium salts. In the formation of bone this is a normal condition. The Medical Services Advisory Committee (MSAC) is an independent non-statutory committee established by the Australian Government Minister for Health in May 12,  · Third, acquired immunodeficiency due to infection by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) leads to elevated risk of cancer.

Fourth, the quantity and quality of the immune cell infiltrate found in human primary tumors represent an independent prognostic factor for patient survival.

Human Immunodeficiency Virus | IDCRP