The study showed that higher achieving students were able to look past this while other students were not. Another study done by White and Frederiksen  showed that when twelve 7th grade science classrooms were given time to reflect on what they deemed to be quality work, and how they thought they would be evaluated on their work, the gap between the high achieving students and the low achieving students was decreased. One way to help with this is to offer students different examples of other students' work so they can evaluate the different pieces. By examining the different levels of work, students can start to differentiate between superior and inferior work.
Capacity for analysis and synthesis No clear-cut definition of the capacity emerged from the consultation but it was evident that the Subject Area Groups SAGs defined analysis and synthesis in a very wide sense.
The Business Studies SAG listed among others the elements of identifying the right research question or problem, the ability to describe as well as to conclude and formulate recommendations as indicators.
The Education SAG also took into account the reflective ability of a student and the ways in which this demonstrates the capacity for description, analysis and synthesis.
If not, students should find out what they could use from past experience and start there to develop new approaches to solving the problem. Other SAGs defined analysis in a way which seems to comprise all these indicators as activities, i. It demands logical thinking, using the key assumptions of the relevant subject area and even the development of this area further by research.
In no SAG was the acquisition of this skill taught in a separate element or module, i. This view was also supported by the perceptions of students. Data collected from students showed that they attached great importance to this competence as it enabled them to relate theory and practice, evaluate findings logically and use instruments to find out alternative ways; they perceived it as being highly pertinent to their future professional career.
For the description of the competence a large number of expressions were used: This wide definition is essential as it relates directly to the teaching and learning activities which enable students to achieve this competence.
It is highlighted that the competence is directly related to the ability to solve problems, another highly ranked generic competence. Assessment of the extent to which this competence has been achieved varies according to the way in which it has been developed. In some SAGs this was done partly through group meetings and discussion sessions.
The assessment can also be based on how students analysed material or information. In the Education SAG a variety of modes of assessment were identified: Students may also contribute to their assessment by submitting or presenting a "self-evaluation" at the end of the semester.
Feedback is organised through group discussions or individually, whether in writing or face-to-face. In most cases, however, it is described as the ability to perform specific academic tasks, which may vary according to the discipline.
In initial teacher education there is a clear projection into the future teaching profession. In the second cycle this competence is often described in more professional terms, and may be more closely associated with activities to be performed in the workplace such as collecting information from diverse sources and writing a report on a complex issue.
The different teaching methods used to help the students achieve this competence reflect different approaches to practice. Accordingly, the opportunities for practice provided inside and outside the institution are described differently in the various disciplines, as exercises of various types, practical classes, lecture sessions, seminars, field classes, laboratory sessions, industrial projects, industrial placements, study visits, field excursions, student teaching practice.
Some disciplines suggest that this competence can be best developed by doing a project or writing a thesis. Others, like Business Studies, Chemistry, Mathematics and Education emphasise the need to provide appropriate tools and methods as well as opportunities for problem solving.
The Education group emphasises the importance of reflection on work done. Earth Science Geology reported the centrality of this competence to the development of subject knowledge.
Sometimes the learning activities intended to develop this competence are carried out in connection with the world of work.
In Physics, Chemistry, Business Studies among other subjects final year projects can be carried out partially or totally in an industrial environment, and in Nursing and Education there is a substantial practical component.
Learning activities for this competence may also be carried out within the academic learning environment, performed by whole classes, small groups and individual students. I t is traditional in Earth Science to have students undertake a mapping thesis involving some six weeks applying their knowledge in the field working either autonomously or in a small group, usually with limited supervision.
The resultant report on this independent work can comprise a significant component of the final exam and is considered extremely important by employers. Continuous assessment of progress is based on seminars, exercises of increasing complexity, laboratory work, short oral presentations, teaching practice, assignments, regular meetings with the teacher for evaluation and feedback on the project.Departments can share their assessment plans with each other and, in doing so, share successful approaches to assessment, creative solutions to overcoming obstacles to assessment, innovative changes made to curriculum and instruction to improve student learning, etc.
The goal of formative assessment is to monitor student learning to provide ongoing feedback that can be used by instructors to improve their teaching and by students to improve their learning.
More specifically, formative assessments: help students identify their strengths and weaknesses and target.
precise definition of formative assessment, and discuss al.,). briefly the aims of Design and Technology which such work in design and technology, drawn mainly from other Education (Assessment) Project (LITE). Another three-year writing.
Initially formative assessment was found in . In education, the term assessment refers to the wide variety of methods or tools that educators use to evaluate, measure, and document the academic readiness, learning progress, skill acquisition, or educational needs of students.
The National Joint Committee on Learning Disabilities (NJCLD) 1 strongly supports comprehensive assessment and evaluation of students with learning disabilities by a multidisciplinary team for the identification and diagnosis of students with learning disabilities. Comprehensive assessment of individual students requires the use of multiple data sources.
The definition of formative Assessment is that the Arizona Department of Education (ADE) as a system embraces is from the Council of Chief State School Officers (CCSSO).
This definition was developed by the Formative Assessment for Students and Teachers (FAST) State Collaborative on Assessment and Student Standards (SCASS) or FAST SCASS.