Examining problems of urbanization

He gave Jakarta, Monas — his most symbolic new structure the m high national monument, spacious new government buildings, department stores, shopping plazas, hotels, the sport facilities of Senayan that were used for the Asian Games, the biggest and most glorious mosque of Istiqlal, new parliament buildings and the waterfront recreation area at Ancol.

Examining problems of urbanization

Squalor can be seen in the streets, wash clothes hanging between buildings. Published in Life and Labour of the People in London. The red areas are "middle class, well-to-do", light blue areas are "poor, 18s to 21s a week for a moderate family", dark blue areas are "very poor, casual, chronic want", and black areas are the "lowest class Slums were common in the United States and Europe before the early 20th century.

London's East End is generally considered the locale where the term originated in the 19th century, where massive and rapid urbanisation of the dockside and industrial areas led to intensive overcrowding in a warren of post-medieval streetscape.

The suffering of the poor was described in popular fiction by moralist authors such as Charles Dickens — most famously Oliver Twist and echoed the Christian Socialist values of the time, which soon found legal expression in the Public Health Act of As the slum clearance movement gathered pace, deprived areas such as Old Nichol were fictionalised to raise awareness in the middle classes in the form of moralist novels such as A Child of the Jago resulting in slum clearance and reconstruction programmes such as the exemplary Boundary Estate and the creation of charitable trusts such as the Peabody Trust founded in and Joseph Rowntree Foundation which still operate to provide decent housing today.

Slums are often associated with Victorian Britainparticularly in industrial English towns, lowland Scottish towns and Dublin City in Ireland. Engels described these British neighborhoods as "cattle-sheds for human beings". In Europe, slums were common.

A footnote defined slum to mean "low, unfrequent parts of the town".

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Charles Dickens used the word slum in a similar way inwriting "I mean to take a great, London, back-slum kind walk tonight". Slum began to be used to describe bad housing soon after and was used as alternative expression for rookeries. Close under the Abbey of Westminster there lie concealed labyrinths of lanes and potty and alleys and slums, nests of ignorance, vice, depravity, and crime, as well as of squalor, wretchedness, and disease; whose atmosphere is typhus, whose ventilation is cholera; in which swarms of huge and almost countless population, nominally at least, Catholic; haunts of filth, which no sewage committee can reach — dark corners, which no lighting board can brighten.

This demographic and economic trend rapidly raised rents of existing housing as well as expanded slums. French government passed laws to block increase in the rent of housing, which inadvertently made many housing projects unprofitable and increased slums.

New York City is believed to have created America's first slum, named the Five Points inas it evolved into a large urban settlement. Trash piled up as well and by the early s the lake was filled up and dry. On this foundation was built Five Points, the United States' first slum.

Five Points was occupied by successive waves of freed slaves, Irish, then Italian, then Chinese, immigrants.

Examining problems of urbanization

It housed the poor, rural people leaving farms for opportunity, and the persecuted people from Europe pouring into New York City. Bars, bordellos, squalid and lightless tenements lined its streets. Violence and crime were commonplace. Politicians and social elite discussed it with derision.

Slums like Five Points triggered discussions of affordable housing and slum removal.

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As of the start of the 21st century, Five Points slum had been transformed into the Little Italy and Chinatown neighborhoods of New York City, through that city's campaign of massive urban renewal. Slums were found in every major urban region of the United States throughout most of the 20th century, long after the Great Depression.

Most of these slums had been ignored by the cities and states which encompassed them until the s' War on Poverty was undertaken by the Federal government of the United States.Abstract.

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The chapter then moves on to a discussion of the critical role of governments in choosing the appropriate combinations of monetary, fiscal, trade, investment and social policies to create an economic environment that is conducive to the attainment of food security. Return to Transcripts main page.

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