Circulatory system Blood is circulated around the body through blood vessels by the pumping action of the heart.
Morphology Depending on its host environment, the organism occurs in three different forms Figure 7 and 9B. The trypanosomal trypomastigote form figure 7Afound in mammalian blood, is 15 to 20 microns long and morphologically similar to African trypanosomes.
The crithidial epimastigote form figure 7B is found in the insect intestine. The leishmanial amastigote form figure 7Cfound intracellularly or in pseudocysts in mammalian viscera particularly in myocardium and brainis round or oval in shape, measures microns and lacks a prominent flagellum.
CDC DPDx Parasite Image Library Life cycle The organism is transmitted to mammalian host by many species of kissing or triatomine riduvid bug figure 8most prominently by Triatoma infestans, Triatoma sordida, Panstrongylus megistus and Rhodnius prolixus.
Transmission takes place during the feeding of the bug which normally bites in the facial area hence the name, kissing bug and Blood tissue the habit of defecating during feeding. The metacyclic trypamastigotes, contained in the fecal material, gain access to the mammalian tissue through the wound which is often rubbed by the individual that is bitten.
The amastigotes differentiate into non-replicating trypomastigotes and the cells rupture to release them into the bloodstream. Additional host cells, of a variety of types, can become infected and the trypomastigotes once again form amastigotes inside these cells.
Uninfected insect vectors acquire the organism when they feed on infected animals or people containing trypomastigotes circulating in their blood. Inside the alimentary tract of the insect vector, the trypomastigotes differentiate to form epimastigotes and divide longitudinally in the mid and hindgut of the insect where they develop into infective metacyclic trypomastigotes figure 9C.
Transmission may also occur between humans by Blood transfusion Mother to baby via a transplacental route Organ transplantation Very rarely via contaminated food or drink Figure 7C.
Symptoms Chagas' disease can be divided into three stages: The primary lesion, chagoma, appearing at the site of infection, within a few hours of a bite, consists of a slightly raised, flat non-purulent erythematous plaque surrounded by a variable area of hard edema.
It is usually found on the face, eyelids, cheek, lips or the conjunctiva, but may occur on the abdomen or limbs. When the primary chagoma is on the face, there is an enlargement of the pre- and post- auricular and the submaxillary glands on the side of the bite.
Infection in the eyelid, resulting in a unilateral conjunctivitis and orbital edema Ramana's sign figure 9Ais the commonest finding. The acute stage appears days after infection.
It is characterized by restlessness, sleeplessness, malaise, increasing exhaustion, chills, fever and bone and muscle pains. Other manifestations of the acute phase are cervical, axillary and iliac adenitishepatomegalyerythematous rash and acute myocarditis. There is a general edematous reaction associated with lymphadenopathy.
Diffuse myocarditis, sometimes accompanied by serious pericarditis and endocarditis, is very frequent during the initial stage of the disease. In children, Chagas' disease may cause meningo-encephalitis and coma.
Death occurs in percent of infants. Hematologic examination reveals lymphocytosis and parasitemia. The acute stage is usually not recognized and often resolves with little or no immediate damage and the infected host remains an asymptomatic carrier.
They alternate between asymptomatic remission periods and relapses characterized by symptoms seen in the acute phase. Cardiac arrhythmia is common. The chronic disease results in an abnormal function of the hollow organs, particularly the heart, esophagus and colon.
The cardiac changes include myocardial insufficiency, cardiomegaly, disturbances of atrio-ventricular conduction and the Adams-Stoke syndrome. Disturbances of peristalsis lead to megaesophagus and megacolon figure 9B.
Pathology and Immunology The pathological effects of acute phase Chagas' disease largely result from direct damage to infected cells.Cord Blood and Tissue Basics Umbilical cord blood and tissue are rich in powerful stem cells that can only be collected at birth for potential future use.
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Aug 14, · Blood is the connective webkandii.com are 4 types of connective tissues in human body Connective tissues are believed to arise from an embryonic tissue called mesenchyme.
Mesenchyme arises from mesoderm, an embryonic germ . The subcutaneous tissue (from Latin subcutaneous, meaning 'beneath the skin'), also called the hypodermis, hypoderm (from Greek, Modern, meaning 'beneath the skin'), subcutis, or superficial fascia, is the lowermost layer of the integumentary system in vertebrates.
The types of cells found in the hypodermis are fibroblasts, adipose cells, and macrophages. We have seven convenient donor room locations to serve you. Click below to find a donor room or blood drive near you or to schedule an appointment online.