Argumentum ad lazarum The fallacy of assuming that someone poor is sounder or more virtuous than someone who's wealthier. This fallacy is the opposite of the Argumentum ad Crumenam. Remember always that fallacious arguments can arrive at true conclusions. You can't just cancel the six!
Types of Cloning a. When scientists wish to replicate a specific gene to facilitate more thorough study, molecular cloning is implemented in order to generate multiple copies of the DNA fragment of interest.
In this process, the specific DNA fragment is transferred from one organism into a self-replicating genetic element, e. Because this kind of cloning does not result in the genesis of a human organism, it has no reproductive intent or goals, and it does not result in the creation and destruction of embryos, there is little to no contention regarding its use.
Therapeutic Cloning Embryonic stem cells are derived from human embryos at approximately five days post-fertilization, in the blastocyst stage of development. Because of their plasticity, embryonic stem cells can be manipulated to become any cell in the human body, e.
Many scientists hope that, with proper research and application, embryonic stem cells can be used to treat a wide variety of afflictions, e. One current obstacle for the successful use of embryonic stem cells for disease therapy concerns immunological rejection.
If a patient were to receive stem cell therapy in order to treat some affliction, her body may reject the stem cells for the same reason human bodies have a tendency to reject donated organs: Ina California research team succeeded in creating embryos via SCNT and growing them to the blastocyst stage French et al.
The ovum is then artificially induced to begin dividing as if it had been naturally fertilized usually via the use of an electrical current. Once the embryo is approximately five days old, the stem cells are removed, cultured, differentiated to the desired type of body cell, and inserted back into the patient the genetic donor in this case.
Since the embryo was a genetic duplicate of the patient, there would be no immunological rejection. One use of this technology, for example, is to help treat individuals in the aftermath of a heart attack. It may also be possible to use therapeutic cloning to repair defective genes by homologous recombination Doetschman et al.
Cellular models of diseases can be developed as well, along with the ability to test drug efficacy: The tissue could be experimented upon to understand why disease occurs. Therapeutic cloning is controversial because isolating the stem cells from the embryo destroys it.
Many individuals regard the human embryo as a person with moral rightsand so they consider its destruction to be morally impermissible.
Moreover, because the embryos are created with the explicit intention to destroy them, there are concerns that this treats the embryos in a purely instrumental manner Annas et al.
Although some ethicists are in favor of using surplus embryos from fertility treatments for research since the embryos were slated for destruction in any casethey are simultaneously against creating embryos solely for research due to the concern that doing so treats the embryos purely as means Outka, ; Peters, Unlike therapeutic cloning, the cloned embryo is transferred into a uterus of a female of the same species and would be, upon successful implantation, allowed to gestate as a naturally fertilized egg would.
In addition to its slight genetic difference, the cloned embryo would likely be gestated in a different uterine environment, which can also have an effect in ways that may serve to distinguish it from its genetic predecessor. The result is that the genes behave in ways that may lead to a difference in appearance.
In addition to somatic cell nuclear transfer, there is another, less controversial and less technologically complex, manner of reproductive cloning: The embryo is then induced to divide into genetic copies of itself, thereby artificially mimicking what happens when monozygotic multiples are formed Illmensee et al.
The embryos are then transferred into a womb and, upon successful implantation and gestation, are born as identical multiples.Intelligent design (ID) is a pseudoscientific argument for the existence of God, presented by its proponents as "an evidence-based scientific theory about life's origins".
Proponents claim that "certain features of the universe and of living things are best explained by an intelligent cause, not an undirected process such as natural selection." ID is a form of creationism that lacks empirical.
After the most recent school shooting, NC State Rep. Larry Pittman said he wanted to work with police to train teachers and allow them to carry weapons at school.
As an Army veteran, I've been in. Logic & Fallacies Constructing a Logical Argument () mathew [ Español / Spanish] Introduction. There is a lot of debate on the net.
Unfortunately, much of it is of very low quality. Purdue University is a world-renowned, public research university that advances discoveries in science, technology, engineering and math.
With its flagship campus in West Lafayette, Indiana, Purdue is a land-grant university with a system that has statewide campuses and . Published continually since , "NEWS YOU CAN USE" was a Blog before "Blog" was even a word!
Its intention has been to help inform the football coach and the interested football observer on a wide variety of to pics, usually - but not always - related in some way to coaching or leadership.
It contains news and views often (trigger alert!) highly opinionated but intended to be thought-pr ovoking. The question of gun rights is a political question, in the broad sense that it touches on the distribution of power in a polity.
Thus, although it incorporates all these perfectly legitimate “sub-political” activities, it is not fundamentally about hunting, or collecting, or target practice; it is about empowering the citizen relative to the state.